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Programming Guide

Virtual channels are referred to by a seven-character (or shorter) ASCII name. In several previous versions of the ICA protocol, virtual channels were numbered; the numbers are now assigned dynamically based on the ASCII name, making implementation easier.

When developing virtual channel code for internal use only, you can use any seven-character name that does not conflict with existing virtual channels. Use only upper and lowercase ASCII letters and numbers. Follow the existing naming convention when adding your own virtual channels.

The predefined channels, which begin with the OEM identifier CTX, are for use only by Citrix.

Design Suggestions

Follow these suggestions to make your virtual channels easier to design and enhance:

  • When you design your own virtual channel protocol, allow for the flexibility to add features. Virtual channels have version numbers that are exchanged during initialization so that both the client and the server detect the maximum level of functionality that can be used. For example, if the client is at Version 3 and the server is at Version 5, the server does not send any packets with functionality beyond Version 3 because the client does not know how to interpret the newer packets.

  • Because the server side of a virtual channel protocol can be implemented as a separate process, it is easier to write code that interfaces with the Citrix-provided virtual channel support on the server than on the client (where the code must fit into an existing code structure). The server side of a virtual channel simply opens the channel, reads from and writes to it, and closes it when done.

Writing code for the server-side is similar to writing an application, which uses services exported by the system. It is easier to write an application to handle the virtual channel communication because it can then be run once for each ICA connection supporting the virtual channel.

Writing for the client-side is similar to writing a driver, which must provide services to the system in addition to using system services. If a service is written, it must manage multiple connections.

  • If you are designing new hardware for use with new virtual channels (for example, an improved compressed video format), make sure the hardware can be detected so that the client can determine whether or not it is installed. Then the client can communicate to the server if the hardware is available before the server uses the new data format. Optionally, you could have the virtual driver translate the new data format for use with older hardware.

  • There might be limitations preventing your new virtual channel from performing at an optimum level. If the client is connecting to the server running XenApp through a low-speed connection, the bandwidth might not be great enough to properly support audio or video data. You can make your protocol adaptive, so that as bandwidth decreases, performance degrades gracefully, possibly by sending sound normally but reducing the frame rate of the video to fit the available bandwidth.

  • To identify where problems are occurring (connection, implementation, or protocol), first get the connection and communication working. Then, after the virtual channel is complete and debugged, do some time trials and record the results. These results establish a baseline for measuring further optimizations such as compression and other enhancements so that the channel requires less bandwidth.

  • The time stamp in the pVdPoll variable can be helpful for resolving timing issues in your virtual driver. It is a ULONG containing the current time in milliseconds. The pVdPoll variable is a pointer to a DLLPOLL structure. See dllapi.h (in base/inc/) for definitions of these structures.

Client-Side Functions Overview

The client software is built on a modular configurable architecture that allows replaceable, configurable modules (such as virtual channel drivers) to handle various aspects of an ICA connection. These modules are specially formatted and dynamically loadable. To accomplish this modular capability, each module (including virtual channel drivers) implements a fixed set of function entry points.

There are six groups of functions: user-defined, virtual driver helper, memory INI, Workspace app for Linux sub-window interface, Workspace app for Linux event interface, and Workspace app for Linux timer interface.

User-Defined Functions

To make writing virtual channels easier, dynamic loading is handled by the WinStation driver, which in turn calls user-defined functions. This simplifies creating the virtual channel because all you have to do is fill in the functions and link your virtual channel driver with vdapi.a (provided with this SDK).

Function Description
DriverClose Frees private driver data. Called before unloading a virtual driver (generally upon client exit).
DriverGetLastError Returns the last error set by the virtual driver. Not used; links with the common front end, VDAPI.
DriverInfo Retrieves information about the virtual driver.
DriverOpen Performs all initialization for the virtual driver. Called once when the client loads the virtual driver (at startup).
DriverPoll Allows driver to check timers and other state information, sends queued data to the server, and performs any other required processing. Called periodically to see if the virtual driver has any data to write.
DriverQueryInformation Retrieves run-time information from the virtual driver.
DriverSetInformation Sets run-time information in the virtual driver.
ICADataArrival Indicates that data was delivered. Called when data arrives on the virtual channel.

Virtual Driver Helper Functions

The virtual driver uses helper functions to send data and manage the virtual channel. When the WinStation driver initializes the virtual driver, the WinStation driver passes pointers to helper functions and the virtual driver passes pointers to the user-defined functions. Newer API functions QueueVirtualWrite, MM_*, Evt_*, and Tmr_* helper functions are callable directly by the virtual driver.

VdCallWd is linked in as part of VDAPI and is available in all user-implemented functions. The others are obtained during DriverOpen when VdCallWd is called with the WDxSETINFORMATION parameter.

Function Description
QueueVirtualWrite Queues a virtual write and stimulates packet output if required allowing the data to be sent without waiting for the poll. This must be used to send data to the server in all newly written virtual drivers. This replaces the deprecated functions below.
AppendVdHeader (Deprecated) Appends a virtual driver header to a buffer.
OutBufAppend (Deprecated) Appends data to a buffer.
OutBufReserve (Deprecated) Checks for available output buffer space.
OutBufWrite (Deprecated) Sends the buffer to the server.
VdCallWd Used to query and set information from the WinStation driver (WD).

Memory INI Functions

Memory INI functions read data from the client engine configuration files stored in both the client installation directory for system wide settings and \$HOME/.ICAClient for user specific settings.

For each entry in appsrv.ini and wfclient.ini, there must be a corresponding entry in All_Regions.ini for the setting to take effect. For more information, refer to All_Regions.ini file in the \$ICAROOT/config directory.

Function Description
miGetPrivateProfileBool Returns a boolean value.
miGetPrivateProfileInt Returns an integer value.
miGetPrivateProfileLong Returns a long value.
miGetPrivateProfileString Returns a string value.

Workspace app for Linux Sub-Window Interface

Workspace app for Linux sub-window interface allows a virtual channel to gain access to a sub-window of the client session in order to draw within a session. The sub-window interface is not designed to take keyboard and mouse input. It is simply for rendering graphics.

Function Description
MM_clip Sets the shape of the window.
MM_destroy_window Destroys a window created by MM_get_window.
MM_get_window Creates an operating system window that is a sub-window of an existing session window.
MM_set_geometry Sets the size and position of a session sub-window.
MM_show_window Makes a window visible.
MM_TWI_clear_new_window_function Clears the callback for seamless window creation.
MM_TWI_set_new_window_function Adds a callback for seamless window creation.

Workspace app for Linux Event (Evt) Interface

Workspace app for Linux event interface allows a virtual channel to select on a given file descriptor in the Workspace app for Linux event loop and receive a callback from the Workspace app for Linux event loop when the given conditions are met.

Function Description
Evt_create Allocates an event structure that can be used to fire a callback on an event.
Evt_destroy Destroys previously created event structure.
Evt_remove_triggers Removes any previously added file descriptor selections on a given file descriptor.
Evt_remove_triggers Removes any previously added file descriptor selections on a given file descriptor.
Evt_signal Calls the function stored in the event structure.
Evt_trigger_for_input Connects the callback of an event structure to be triggered on the given file descriptor satisfying the input conditions.
Evt_trigger_for_output Connects the callback of an event structure to be triggered on the given file descriptor satisfying the output conditions.

Workspace app for Linux Timer (Tmr) Interface

Workspace app for Linux timer interface allows a virtual channel to set up a recurrent timer that invokes a given callback. The timer is attached to the event loop of the Workspace app for Linux and is called from the event loop when the timer fires.

Function Description
Tmr_create Creates a timer object and returns its handle.
Tmr_destroy Destroys a timer object given a printer to its handle and sets the handle to NULL.
Tmr_setEnabled Enables or disables a timer object.
Tmr_setPeriod Sets the timeout period for a timer.